Research ArticleNew Research, Sensory and Motor Systems
Computational Architecture of the Parieto-Frontal Network Underlying Cognitive-Motor Control in Monkeys
Roberto Caminiti, Elena Borra, Federica Visco-Comandini, Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer, Bruno B. Averbeck and Giuseppe Luppino
eNeuro 14 February 2017, 4 (1) ENEURO.0306-16.2017; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0306-16.2017
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome SAPIENZA, Rome, 00185, Italy
Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine, and Orthopedics, University of Rome SAPIENZA, Rome, 00185, Italy
Brain figurine showing the location of the cortical areas on the mesial, lateral, and orbitofrontal aspects of the macaque cerebral cortex. The cingulate (Cg), superior arcuate (SA), inferior arcuate (IA), intra-parietal and lateral (L) sulci are opened to better display the location of cortical areas buried in their banks. PO and Ca on the mesial aspect of the hemisphere indicate parieto-occipital sulcus and calcarine fissure, respectively. Lu, P and ST in the lateral view of the hemisphere indicate lunate, principal and superior temporal sulcus. LO and MO in the orbitofrontal cortex indicate lateral and medial orbital sulci, respectively. Cortical areas are defined on the basis of both architectonic and connectional criteria (see text).
Trees fit of the data. A, ML parietal tree generated from bootstrap analysis. Colors indicate the clusters we have identified for further analysis, labeled with different acronyms on the basis of their anatomic location. B, Parietal tree generated from the 100 ML trees in frontal cortex. Numbers at each branch node indicate the number of times a cluster occurred in the 100 ML trees. pIPL, aIPL, aSPL, mdSPL, and pmSPL indicate posterior IPL, anterior IPL, anterior SPL, mediodorsal SPL, and postero-medial SPL clusters. C, Location and topography of clusters in parietal cortex. Red, pmSPL; light blue, mdSPL; magenta, aSPL; green, pIPL; orange, aIPL.
Trees fit of the data. A, Consensus tree generated from the 100 ML trees in frontal cortex. Clusters are labeled based on their anatomic location: MI-dmPM, primary motor/dorsal premotor; vPM, ventral premotor; CING, cingulate; pPFC, posterior prefrontal cortex; dmPFC, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; voPFC, ventro-orbitofrontal cortex. B, Location and topography of clusters in frontal cortex. The three prefrontal clusters (voPFC, dmPF, pPFC) are indicated with different green shades; red, CING; orange, vPM; light blue, MI-dmPM. Conventions as in Fig. 2.
Inputs to the parietal clusters. Spider plots displaying the mean values (scale: 0–100) of frontal and parietal (gray shading) inputs to any given parietal cluster (top). The cluster entropy is also reported.
Inputs to the frontal clusters. Spider plots displaying the mean values (scale: 0–100) of frontal (gray shading) and parietal inputs to any given parietal cluster (top). The cluster entropy is also reported.
Parieto-frontal information systems. Organization of main cortical connections among parietal and frontal clusters. For each cluster, the arrow size indicates the strength (mean value across input areas; see Materials and Methods) of inputs (scale: 0–100). Note that the strongest detected mean input was equal to 50. Main systems are highlighted by colored thicker lines.
Trees fit of the data and intrinsic parietal inputs. Consensus trees of superior (A) and inferior (B) parietal clusters defined on the basis of the SPL–IPL connections. C, Spider plots displaying the mean values (scale: 0–100) of parietal inputs to any given SPL and IPL cluster. The cluster entropy is also reported. Conventions and symbols as in Figs. 2 and 4.
Overall view of SPL–IPL information flows. Organization of main cortical connections among SPL and IPL clusters. For each cluster, the arrow size indicates the strength (mean value across input areas; see Materials and Methods) of inputs (scale: 0–100). Note that the strongest detected mean input was equal to 70.
Parietal and frontal domains and parieto-frontal information systems. Parietal, frontal, and prefrontal domains underlying the dorsal reaching system, the lateral grasping system, the lateral reach and action space system, and the oculomotor intention and attention system. The domain acronyms (pmSPL, pIPL, etc.) correspond to those of the clusters. However, in each domain, only the areas (ovals) that participate in any given systems are indicated.